In heralding a new era in cosmology, Norwegian Kristian Birkeland predicted that the universe will most likely include an unusual component known as dark matter. His remarks on the issue were included in an account of the Norwegian Aurora Polaris Expedition (1902-1903). Birkeland’s Expedition theories were published in 1913, the year that saw the establishment of the socialist Federal Reserve System and the Income Tax in the United States of America, two essential components of the communist manifesto. Evolutionary processes were at work in all domains of effort. Economics, politics, science, and men’s and women’s hearts and minds were all on the line as relativism, not the truth, ruled the contemporary imagination. Birkeland stated that cosmology will suffer from the same ‘evolutionary’ mindset:
“We hypothesized that in evolutions, each star system emits electric corpuscles into space. It does not seem unreasonable to believe that the majority of the material masses in the universe are situated in “empty” space rather than in solar systems or nebulae.”
Birkeland predicted that due to the ‘evolutions’ existing in the universe, most of the matter in the universe must be located in ’empty’ space rather than in star objects. It is now thought that only 4% of the cosmos is made up of regular visible star types. Furthermore, around a quarter of the universe is made up of omnipresent dark matter, with the remainder filled with even stranger dark energy. Fritz Zwicky, a Swiss scientist at Caltech, would further the notion of dark matter under the auspices of the Virial Theorem.
This mathematical relationship is a formula that limits the energy of a collection of particles. Zwicky utilized the Virial Theorem in an effort to determine the viability of the dark matter concept in another dark year in the slow development of enslavement since 1933 saw the disappearance of gold from the accounts of American citizens. He concentrated his efforts on the Coma galaxy cluster, and his findings gave preliminary support for the existence of dark matter. He was able to estimate the aggregate of all the matter in the cluster by analyzing the amount of movement of those galaxies near the cluster’s border.
He was astounded to see that this total mass differed from an independently estimated estimate. This additional figure was calculated by combining the total number of galaxies and the brightness of the Coma cluster. When he compared this figure to the peripheral calculation, he discovered a four-hundredfold disparity. Because the galaxies were too heavy to generate the predicted orbital velocities, another process must be at work to explain this phenomenon. This issue was dubbed the “missing mass problem” by scientists. Zwicky had demonstrated the necessity for an undiscovered unseen source of mass to give the cluster the appropriate gravitational impact.
Thus, it is a reality of contemporary cosmology that the most comprehensive collection of evidence for dark matter comes from galactic gravitational measurements. Scientists have even created galactic curves that describe the rotating characteristics of stars as they go closer to the galactic center. When gravitational data is displayed, it is clear that only a tiny percentage of the reported speeds can be explained by traditional calculations. In other words, there isn’t enough visible mass in the known galaxies to assign the sum total of gravitational forces to visible stars, planets, and galaxies. Thus, the easiest explanation for this galaxy conundrum of inadequate mass is to propose a non-detectable form of mass known as dark matter as the source of gravitational forces.
As additional evidence on these and other parts of the cosmos is gathered, equations and cosmological postulates are developed to describe the facts. Fulfilling the criteria of the aforementioned elements leads some scientists to suggest a variety of dark matter kinds. The four basic forms of dark matter are (1) baryonic dark matter, (2) warm dark matter, (3) cold dark matter, and (4) hot dark matter. Dark matter includes everything from black holes to brown dwarfs to massive compact halo objects (MACHOs), neutrinos, axions, WIMPS (weakly interacting massive particles), and the esoteric neutralino. However, there is another explanation for the gravitational forces that gave rise to the idea of dark matter.
When an imperfect knowledge of gravity is considered, it is possible to argue that the dark matter explanation is erroneous since these events are caused by something else. Several competing ideas have been suggested to explain the observed galactic data. Scalar tensor theories, which attempt to link quantum physics with gravity, provide one of the primary contending hypotheses. Exotic concepts emerge as a result of amplifying these ideas, which question our most basic beliefs about physics and astronomy. Other notions go much further and have piqued the curiosity of astronomers such as Dr. Riccardo Scarpa because they allow for cosmology without the mysterious dark matter.
Dr. Scarpa uses the Very Large Telescope Array at Paranal at the European Southern Observatory in Santiago, Chile. With all of his knowledge in this subject, some of his most recent statements about the unnecessary dark matter are worth noting:
“Dark matter is the most outlandish concept in astronomy. It may materialize when you need it, accomplish anything you want, and be dispersed in whatever you choose. It’s an astronomical fairy tale.”
Given these statements, one would wonder whether another scientific concept is on the point of collapse. In fact, astronomers use these other theoretical ideas on a regular basis in infrared observatories all around the globe. As a result, it is quite conceivable that we are just mistaken about all of this dark matter. Most likely, the only dark matter we will ever discover is the ignorant dark stuff between our ears.
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